Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
https://revodontolunesp.com.br/article/doi/10.1590/1807-2577.09519
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

Perda de inserção periodontal e associações com indicadores de risco sociodemográficos e comportamentais

Periodontal attachment loss and associations with sociodemographic and behavioral risk indicators

Fernanda Cristina Figueira TEIXEIRA; Letícia MARÍN-LEÓN; Everton Padilha GOMES; Alice Moreira Neves PEDRÃO; Alexandre da Costa PEREIRA; Priscila Maria Bergamo Stolces FRANCISCO

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Resumo

Resumo: Introdução: A perda de inserção clínica periodontal (PIP) tem sido indicada como parâmetro determinante para o estudo de indicadores de risco de periodontite crônica.

Objetivo: Descrever a prevalência, severidade e extensão de PIP em um grupo populacional que se abstém de álcool e tabaco, além de avaliar associações com características sociodemográficas e comportamentais dos participantes.

Método: Uma amostra de 420 indivíduos adultos, participantes do Estudo Advento (São Paulo), foi submetida ao exame periodontal de seis sítios por dente e respondeu um questionário estruturado. As associações foram verificadas por meio de análise de regressão logística múltipla.

Resultado: A prevalência de periodontite foi de 20,7% e de gengivite, 38,8%; a PIP média foi de 1,38 mm (± 0,5) e a perda dental, 5,4 (± 9,0). A prevalência de PIP ≥ 3 mm, ≥ 4 mm e ≥ 6 mm foi de 69,7%, 31,7% e 9,6% dos indivíduos, e 11,4%, 4,4% e 1,2% dos dentes por indivíduo, respectivamente. Houve associação significativa de PIP ≥ 4 mm com sexo masculino, idade superior a 55 anos, baixa escolaridade, placa visível, autocuidado irregular, falta de orientação em higiene bucal e doença sistêmica referida. Para PIP ≥ 6 mm, foi observada maior razão de chances para as variáveis idade e doença sistêmica.

Conclusão: O grupo populacional estudado apresentou baixa extensão e severidade de PIP, possivelmente pelas características da amostra. As associações de risco encontradas confirmam a necessidade de atenção integral ao paciente, incluindo o incentivo à prevenção e ao controle de doenças crônicas, ao lado de orientações específicas para higiene bucal.

Palavras-chave

Periodontite, perda de inserção periodontal, epidemiologia, fatores de risco

Abstract

Abstract: Introduction: Clinical attachment loss (CAL) has been indicated as a determining parameter for the study of risk indicators of chronic periodontitis.

Objective: To describe the prevalence, severity and extent of CAL in a population group that abstains from alcohol and tobacco use and to evaluate associations with sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of participants.

Method: A sample of 420 adult individuals, participants of the Advento Study (São Paulo) were submitted to a periodontal examination of six sites per tooth and answered a structured questionnaire. Associations were verified by multiple logistic regression analysis.

Result: Prevalence of periodontitis was 20.7% and gingivitis 38.8%; mean CAL was 1.38mm (±0.5) and dental loss 5.4 (±9.0). Prevalence of CAL ≥3 mm, ≥4 mm and ≥6 mm was 69.7%, 31.7% and 9.6% of the individuals, affecting 11.4%, 4.4% and 1.2% of the teeth per individual, respectively. After adjustments, there was a significant association of CAL ≥4 mm with males, over 55 years of age, low education, visible plaque, irregular self-care, lack of oral hygiene guidance and reported systemic disease. For CAL ≥6 mm, there was a higher odds ratio for the variables age group and systemic disease.

Conclusion: The population group studied presented low extension and severity of CAL, possibly due to the sample characteristics. The risk associations found confirm the need for comprehensive patient care, including encouraging prevention and control of chronic diseases, along with specific oral hygiene guidelines.
 

Keywords

Periodontitis, clinical attachment loss, epidemiology, risk factors

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