Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
https://revodontolunesp.com.br/article/doi/10.1590/1807-2577.09419
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

Virulence factors of Candida species from the oral mucosa and prostheses of elderly people from a riverside community in the Amazon state, Brazil

Fatores de virulência de espécies de Candida provenientes da mucosa oral e das próteses dos idosos de uma comunidade ribeirinha no Amazonas – Brasil

Daniela Marinho da SILVA; Thayana Cruz de SOUZA; Carol Falcão de Carvalho ALENCAR; Ingrid da Silva de SOUZA; Maria Fulgência Costa Lima BANDEIRA; Ormezinda Celeste Cristo FERNANDES

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Abstract

Abstract: Introduction: Candida albicans is the yeast most commonly affecting the oral cavity, sometimes causing infection. However, several factors may be associated with the onset of candidiasis, which may be related not only to the hygiene and health of individuals, but also to the pathogenicity of these microorganisms.

Objective: To evaluate the virulence factors of Candida yeasts isolated from the oral mucosa of elderly people living in the “Comunidade Lago do Limão”, municipality of Iranduba, Amazonas state, Brazil.

Material and method: Testes were performed to assess the production of urease, proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin. Statistical analysis used the Fisher's exact test and the Chi-squared test.

Result: Prevalence of non-albicans species was observed. As for virulence factors, all isolates were negative ureases, and there was prevalence of very strong proteinase production, whereas most isolates did not produce this enzyme in the phospholipase test. All yeasts analyzed presented hemolysin production, with grade IV hemolysis as the most prevalent. There was no statistically significant difference between the virulence of isolates from the oral cavity and the prostheses of the elderly analyzed.

Conclusion: Several virulence factors may present with high intensity in the presence of oral microbiota changes. In addition, non-albicans species present number of virulence factors similar to that of C. albicans, with high pathogenicity. This study allows a better analysis of candidiasis prevention strategies aiming to promote improvement in the health and quality of life for the elderly.

Keywords

Candida, oral mucosa, dental prosthesis, virulence

Resumo

Resumo: Introdução: A Candida albicans é a levedura que mais acomete a cavidade oral, podendo causar infecção. Porém diversos fatores podem estar associados ao aparecimento da candidíase, que podem estar relacionados com a higiene e saúde dos indivíduos, mas também com a patogenicidade destes microrganismos.

Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores de virulência de leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas da mucosa oral dos idosos residentes na Comunidade Lago do Limão - Iranduba - Amazonas – Brasil.

Material e método: Foram realizados os testes de urease, proteinase, fosfolipase, e avaliação da produção de hemólise. Na análise estatística utilizou-se teste Exato de Fisher e Quiquadrado.

Resultado: Obteve-se a prevalência de espécies não-albicans, quanto aos fatores de virulência, todos os isolados foram ureases negativos, houve prevalência de produção muito forte de proteinase, enquanto que no teste da fosfolipase, a maioria dos isolados não apresentou produção desta enzima; todas as leveduras analisadas apresentaram produção de hemolisina, sendo mais prevalente a hemólise grau IV. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a virulência dos isolados oriundos da cavidade oral e da prótese dos idosos analisados.

Conclusão: Diversos fatores de virulência podem apresentar-se com alta intensidade na presença de alterações da microbiota oral. Além disso, as espécies não-albicans apresentam fatores de virulência tanto quanto a C. albicans, com graus de patogenicidade elevados. Este estudo permite a análise de estratégias de prevenção da candidíase, com intuito de promover melhor saúde e qualidade de vida para os idosos.
 

Palavras-chave

Candida, mucosa oral, prótese dentária, virulência

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