Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
https://revodontolunesp.com.br/article/doi/10.1590/1807-2577.06519
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

Conhecimento de cirurgiões-dentistas sobre a relação entre disfunção temporomandibular e
fatores oclusais

Dentists’ knowledge about the relationship between temporomandibular dysfunction and oclusal factors

Italo Ronny Sales ARAÚJO; Arthur Silva DA SILVEIRA; Mayra CARDOSO; Patricia Nivoloni TANNURE

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Resumo

Resumo: Introdução: As evidências científicas atuais têm demonstrado que o tratamento para disfunção temporomandibular deve seguir uma abordagem conservadora e adaptada ao estado psicossocial do paciente. Entretanto, tratamentos visando às alterações oclusais foram utilizados durante anos pelos cirurgiões-dentistas e o abandono destes paradigmas é essencial para o desenvolvimento da Odontologia.

Objetivo: Objetivou-se avaliar o conhecimento de cirurgiões-dentistas (CD) sobre a relação entre disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) e fatores oclusais.

Material e método: Foi enviado, por e-mail, um questionário previamente publicado para os CD registrados no Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Piauí, Brasil (n = 2.500) com dados sobre o profissional, sua formação e seu conhecimento sobre DTM e fatores oclusais. O consenso da literatura atual, “padrão-ouro”, foi comparado com as respostas obtidas. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente e através dos testes qui-quadrado e odds ratio (p<0,05).

Resultado: Quinhentos e cinco CD responderam e 434 compuseram a amostra. A maioria dos participantes era mulher (72,3%), com 7,2 (±6,63) anos de formados, e trabalhava no setor público-privado (39,0%). Os CD foram divididos em dois grupos: GEsp.: especialistas em DTM, Prótese Dentária e/ou Ortodontia (n=234) e GClín.: clínicos gerais e demais especialistas (n=200). GEsp. e GClín. apresentaram respostas similares para a metade das perguntas. Quatro (de seis) perguntas foram respondidas em desacordo com o padrão-ouro: fatores oclusais, interferências em lado de não trabalho, terapia ortodôntica e ajuste oclusal mostraram ser assuntos pouco conhecidos. GEsp. apresentou maior conhecimento com diferença significativa em relação a GClín. acerca da DTM e das interferências oclusais [odds ratio = 2,341 (1,305-4,202), p=0,004].

Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que os CD da amostra estudada apresentaram deficiências acerca do conhecimento da relação entre DTM e fatores oclusais. Especialistas em DTM, Prótese Dentária e/ou Ortodontia não demonstraram um maior nível de conhecimento quando comparados aos demais.

Palavras-chave

Oclusão dentária, disfunção temporomandibular, conhecimentos

Abstract

Abstract: Introduction: Current scientific evidence has shown that treatment for temporomandibular disorder should follow a conservative approach that is adapted to the patient’s psychosocial status. However, treatments aiming at occlusal changes have been used for years by dentists and the abandonment of these paradigms is essential for the development of dentistry.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of dentists on the relationship between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and occlusal factors.

Material and method: A previously published questionnaire was sent to the dentists registered at the Regional Council of Dentistry of Piauí, Brazil (n = 2,500) with data about the professional, their training and knowledge about TMD and occlusal factors. The consensus of the current literature, “gold standard”, was compared with the answers obtained. The data were analyzed descriptively and through chi-square test and odds ratio (p <0.05).

Result: Five hundred and five dentists answered and 434 composed the sample. The majority of the participants was women (72.3%) with 7.2 (± 6.63) years of education and worked in the public-private sector (39.0%). The dentists were divided into Group 1 (GEsp.): specialists in TMD, dental prosthesis and/or orthodontics (n = 234) and Group 2 (GClin.): clinicians and other specialists (n = 200). GEsp. and GClin. presented similar responses for half of the questions. Four (of six) were answered in disagreement with the gold standard: occlusal factors, interference in the balance, orthodontic therapy and occlusal adjustment were little known. GEsp. presented greater knowledge with a significant difference in relation to GClin. regarding TMD and occlusal interferences (odds ratio = 2,341 (1,305-4,202), p = 0.004).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the dentists presented deficiencies in the knowledge of the relationship between TMD and occlusal factors. Dentists specialists in TMD, dental prosthesis and/or orthodontics did not demonstrate a higher level of knowledge when compared to the others.
 

Keywords

Dental occlusion, temporomandibular disorder, knowledge

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