Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
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Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

Periodontal disease in patients with Diabetes Mellitus: influence of genetic polymorphisms?

Doença periodontal em pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus: influência de polimorfismos genéticos?

Oliveira, Rafael Nepomuceno; Corbi, Sâmia Cruz Tfaile; Bastos, Alliny de Souza; Orrico, Silvana Regina Perez; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli

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Abstract

Currently it is clear that there are several factors that can act as modifiers of diseases, without causing them directly, but having the potential to make these conditions to progress faster and more severe. There is a growing number of studies investigating the relationship between Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Periodontal Disease (PD), including some studies focusing on the influence of genetic factors in this process. The aim of this study was to verify through a literature review, the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the development of PD in patients with DM. PubMed and BIREME were used as databases and the terms Periodontitis or Periodontal Disease, Polymorphism, Diabetes Mellitus were searched. After a refinement in the literature, five studies were selected and they were related to chronic PD with DM and polymorphisms in cytokine genes, especially interleukin 1 (IL1) e IL6. Polymorphisms were associated with a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid of diabetic patients when compared to non-diabetic. In conclusion, it is necessary to confirm this association with longitudinal studies that must investigate a larger number of cytokine genes in order to understand the cause-effect relationship between genetic polymorphisms, DM and PD.

Keywords

Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, genetic polymorphism

Resumo

Nos últimos anos, evidenciou-se que, em muitas patologias, há fatores que não causam diretamente a doença, mas podem modificá-la, tornando o quadro clínico mais grave e a progressão mais rápida. Observa-se um número crescente de estudos investigando a relação entre Diabetes Mellitus (DM) e Doença Periodontal (DP), com alguns enfoques sobre a influência de fatores genéticos nesse processo. Existem polimorfismos genéticos cuja expressão está associada a fatores de risco. Portanto, para que as variantes genéticas afetem a severidade da doença ou a incidência de forma significativa, os polimorfismos genéticos devem agir cumulativamente ou pela interação com outros fatores, como a presença do diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar, por meio de revisão sistemática da literatura, a influência de polimorfismos genéticos no perfil inflamatório da DP em pacientes com diabetes. Foram utilizadas as bases de dados BIREME e PubMed com os termos Periodontitis ou Periodontal disease, Polymorphism e Diabetes Mellitus. Realizando-se um refinamento na pesquisa bibliográfica, foram selecionados cinco referências que relacionavam DP crônica com DM e polimorfismos em genes de citocinas, especialmente Interleucina 1 (IL1) e IL6. Estudos associaram a presença de polimorfismos em pacientes portadores de diabetes à maior concentração de citocinas pró-inflamatórias no fluido gengival, quando comparados a pacientes sem diabetes. Conclui-se que, para confirmar essa associação, é necessária a realização de estudos longitudinais, investigando um maior número de genes para compreender melhor as relações causa-efeito entre polimorfismos genéticos, DM e DP.

Palavras-chave

Periodontite, diabetes mellitus, polimorfismo genético

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