Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
https://revodontolunesp.com.br/article/588018ad7f8c9d0a098b4d73
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

Physical and radiographic evaluation of biomaterials used for bone regeneration

Avaliação física e radiográfica de biomateriais usados para regeneração óssea

Corbi, Sâmara Cruz Tfaile; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Marcantonio Jr, Elcio; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

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Abstract

The search for new alternatives used in bone regeneration pushes the biomaterials’ development, and characteristics such as form, superficial roughness and size, allied to the radiographic bone density of those biomaterials can influence their clinical use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shape, the size, the superficial aspects and the radiographic density of some of the most used bone-regenerating biomaterials grains. Radiographic results showed that all evaluated biomaterials had statistically equal radiographic densities, but all of them were higher than the radiographic bone density of rats calvaria, which is the region normally used for its test. On the physical analysis, β-TCP and HAP showed the higher superficial roughness, while the grains’ diameter and area showed heterogeneous results, with the lyophilized bovine bone showing the higher measures. Based on the results, it is concluded that the tested biomaterials presented higher radiographic density than the region where they are normally applied, and that significant differences in the shape, size and surface roughness could be seen, characteristics which can interfere in their clinical performance.

Keywords

Biomaterials, bone grafts, physical characteristics, radiographic evaluation.

Resumo

A busca por novos materiais para regeneração óssea incentiva o estudo dos biomateriais e sabe-se que suas características físicas, como forma, aspecto superficial e área, bem como as radiográficas, principalmente a densidade, podem influenciar nos resultados obtidos quando de sua utilização clínica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, o tamanho, a forma, o aspecto superficial e a densidade radiográfica de grânulos de alguns dos principais biomateriais utilizados para regeneração óssea. Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente permitindo a detecção das diferenças entre os biomateriais testados. Os resultados radiográficos mostraram que todos os biomateriais avaliados apresentaram densidades radiográficas estatisticamente iguais, porém maiores do que a densidade radiográfica do tecido ósseo da calvária de ratos, região normalmente usada para seu teste. Nas análises físicas, o βTCP e a HAP apresentaram maior rugosidade superficial, enquanto que para os parâmetros diâmetro e área dos grânulos, os resultados foram heterogêneos, com o osso bovino liofilizado apresentando as maiores medidas. Baseado nos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os biomateriais testados apresentaram densidade radiográfica maior do que a região óssea aonde são normalmente implantados e diferenças significativas na forma, tamanho e rugosidade dos grânulos, características essas que podem estar diretamente relacionadas com o seu desempenho clínico.

Palavras-chave

Biomateriais, enxertos ósseos, características físicas, avaliação radiográfica.

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