Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
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Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

A familial case of Aggressive Periodontitis: clinical, microbiological and genetic findings

Caso familiar de Periodontite Agressiva: achados clínicos, microbiológicos e genéticos

Scarel-Caminaga, R.M.; Pires, J.R.; Sogumo, P.M.; Salmon, C.R.; Peres, R.C.R.; Spolidorio, D.M.P.

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Abstract

This study reports the clinical, microbiological and genetic findings in members of a Brazilian family with Aggressive Periodontitis (AgP). After periodontal exams in eleven members of the family, microbiological samples were collected from subgingival plaque and DNA were obtained from epithelial buccal cells. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was utilized to detect five species of periodontopathogens. PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were used to investigate human polymorphisms in interleukin genes (IL4, IL10). Six members of the family showed Generalized AgP, four had Localized AgP and only one was considered unaffected by AgP. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was the most prevalent pathogen (72.7%). The presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was correlated with clinical findings (visible plaque, bleeding on probing and probing depth, p = 0.03). The genetic analyses revealed that 60% of the kindred affected by AgP showed specific IL4/ IL10 haplotypes combinations. The predominance of AgP in this family could be influenced by the amount of plaque and subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Indeed, infection by Porphyromonas gingivalis was associated with clinical parameters of periodontitis. Although the majority of AgP family members presented at least one TTD/ ATA (IL4/ IL10) haplotype combination, it was unable to demonstrate an association with AgP.

Keywords

Periodontitis, microbiology, genetics, cytokines.

Resumo

Este estudo relata achados clínicos, microbiológicos e genéticos em indivíduos de uma família brasileira com Periodontite Agressiva (PA). Após exames periodontais realizados em onze membros da família, foram coletadas amostras microbiológicas de placa subgengival e DNA de células da mucosa oral. A Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (do inglês, PCR) foi utilizada para detectar cinco espécies de periodontopatógenos. As técnicas do Polimorfismo por Comprimento de Fragmento de Restrição (RFLP) e sequenciamento foram usados para investigar polimorfismos humanos em genes da interleucina (IL4, IL10). Seis membros da família apresentaram PA Generalizada, quatro PA Localizada e apenas um indivíduo foi considerado não afetado pela PA. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans foi o patógeno prevalente (72,7%). A presença de Porphyromonas gingivalis foi relacionada com achados clínicos (placa visível, sangramento à sondagem e profundidade de sondagem, p = 0,03). A análise genética revelou que 60% dos membros da família afetados pela PA carregavam o mesmo haplótipo formado por uma combinação de alelos dos genes IL4/ IL10. O predomínio de PA nesta família pode ter sido influenciada pela quantidade de placa bacteriana e prevalência de Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans presente no sulco gengival. A infecção por Porphyromonas gingivalis pode ser associada com parâmetros clínicos relacionados a periodontite. Embora a maioria dos membros afetados pela PA tenha apresentado pelo menos uma combinação de haplótipos TTD/ ATA (IL4/ IL10), não foi possível demonstrar estatisticamente uma associação com PA.

Palavras-chave

Periodontite, microbiologia, genética, citocinas.

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