Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
https://revodontolunesp.com.br/article/588017da7f8c9d0a098b493d
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

Tecido ósseo: aspectos morfológicos e histofisiológicos

Bone tissue: morphological and histophysiological aspects

Andia, D.C.; Cerri, P.S.; Spolidorio, L.C.

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Resumo

O tecido ósseo tem papel importante no suporte, proteção e locomoção e está sob o controle de fatores sistêmicos, como os hormônios, e fatores locais, como os fatores de crescimento e as citocinas. Portanto, os sistemas imune e esquelético encontram-se intimamente relacionados; a esta área interdisciplinar de estudos deu-se o nome de Osteoimunologia. A homeostase do sistema esquelético está na dependência de uma remodelação óssea equilibrada, ou seja, da dinâmica balanceada entre a atividade dos osteoblastos, células de formação óssea, e osteoclastos, células de reabsorção óssea. Este balanço é firmemente controlado pelo sistema imune. Se este balanço inclinar-se a favor dos osteoclastos, levará a reabsorções patológicas, como nas periodontites, artrites reumatóides e doenças osteoporóticas. A compreensão deste processo, como um todo, pode ser a chave para o desenvolvimento de um protocolo de tratamento que poderia levar ao equilíbrio dessas doenças ósseas. Sendo assim, nesta revisão da literatura, nós fornecemos uma visão do tecido ósseo: a composição química de sua matriz, células e componentes celulares, descrevendo como ocorre o processo de remodelação óssea e alguns fatores locais e sistêmicos que interferem neste processo, como citocinas e hormônios.

Palavras-chave

Osteoblastos, osteoclastos, tecido ósseo, sistema imune

Abstract

The bone tissue has an important role in the support, protection and locomotion and it is under control of systemic factors, such as hormones and local regulatory molecules, for instance, growth factor and cytokines. Therefore, the immune and skeletal systems are intimately related; this interdisciplinary branch has been referred as Osteoimmunology. The homeostasis of the skeletal system depends directly on a balanced bone remodeling, i.e., the dynamic balance between the activities of the osteoblasts, bone forming cells and osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells. This balance is tightly and thoroughly controlled by some regulatory systems, such as the immune system. Tipping this balance towards the osteoclasts leads to pathological bone resorption, such as periodontitis, autoimmune arthritis and osteoporotic diseases. The understanding this overall process may be the key to development of a treatment protocol, which could lead to the balance of these bone diseases. Thus, in this literature review, we provide an overview of the bone tissue composition, its cells and proteins of bone matrix, describing how the remodeling bone process occurs, as well as some local and systemic factors that interfere in this process, such cytokines and hormones.

Keywords

Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, bone tissue, immune system

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