Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
https://revodontolunesp.com.br/article/5880174e7f8c9d0a098b4672
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

Biomecânica da movimentação ortodôntica - resposta inicial dos tecidos periodontais

Biomechanics of the orthodontic movement - initial response to the periodontal tissues

Ramalho, L.T.O.; Bozzo, L.

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Resumo

Ocorre resposta biológica dos tecidos de suporte dentário ante as forças fisiológicas e aquelas realizadas durante tratamento clínico, com propósitos ortodônticos. Estas forças diferem das primeiras porque são contínuas e tempo-dependentes. A grande mobilidade dentária está relacionada com o grau de organização dos tecidos do sistema periodontal e a movimentação ortodôntica deve utilizar adequadamente esta excepcional capacidade de renovação e adaptação das estruturas periodontais. Assim, procurou-se avaliar, por meios histológicos, a sucessão de alterações do sistema periodontal após aplicação de força ortodôntica nos molares de ratos jovens e interpretar biologicamente os padrões de mobilidade horizontal e suas consequências sobre as estruturas periodontais. Utilizaram-se ratos jovens, aos quais aplicou-se uma força ortodôntica utilizando o fio de aço colocado em forma de anel no ponto de contacto entre o primeiro e o segundo molares inferiores. Os animais foram sacrificados após 30 minutos, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 e 168 horas após a colocação do anel metálico. Após preparo técnico, as lârrúnas foram examinadas em microscopia óptica e com luz polarizada e os resultados confrontados. Concluiu- se que em todas as secções era evidente a intensa atividade metabólica. Ocorreu uma evolução gradual dos fenômenos de remodelação.

Palavras-chave

Ligamelito periodontal, estudo microscópico, movimentos dentários

Abstract

There occurs a biological response of the tissues of dental support, in answer to the external physiological forces and those realized during clinical treatments with orthodontical purposes. These forces differ from the first ones because they are continuous and time dependente A great dental mobility is related to the degree of tissue organization of the periodontium system and the orthodontical movement must utilize this exceptional capacity of renewal and adaptation of the periodontium structures adequately. Therefore, through histological means a search was made to evaluate the succession of alterations of the periodontium system after the application of an orthodontical force on the molars of young rats and to interpret the standards of horizontal mobility and their consequences on the periodontium structures, biologically. An orthodontic force was applied on young rats utilizing steel wire placed in a ring fonn on a contact point between the first and second lower molars. The animals were sacrificed after 30 minutes, 1,2, 6, 12,24,48, 72, 96 and 168 hours after the placement of the metal ring. After technical preparation, the microscopic slides were examined and the results were compared. ln all the sections there was evidence ofan intense metabolic activity. A gradual evolution of modification on the phenomenons had occurred.

Keywords

Periodontalligament, microscopic study, tooth movement minor

References



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