Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
http://revodontolunesp.com.br/article/doi/10.1590/1807-2577.02118
Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
Original Article

In vitro effect of energy drinks on human enamel surface

Análise in vitro da ação de bebidas energéticas no esmalte dental humano

Marise Sano Suga MATUMOTO; Raquel Sano Suga TERADA; Dayla Thyeme HIGASHI; Mitsue FUJIMAKI; Selma Sano SUGA; Antônio Carlos GUEDES-PINTO

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Abstract

Introduction: Energy drinks (ED) possess low pH and citric acid in their composition, making them potentially erosive beverages that can contribute to the high dental erosion rates found currently in the general population and also in young people.

Objective: To evaluate the mean pH and titratable acidity of commercial ED and the influence of a brand of ED on the superficial microhardness of human enamel.

Material and method: Ten commercial ED were selected and the pH of two lots of each ED with and without gas was obtained. Acid titration was conducted with the addition of NaOH aliquots until the pH 7 was reached. Eighteen human enamel specimens were allocated in three groups (N=6), Red Bull (RB), Red Bull Light (RBL) and distilled water (C), submitted to an acid challenge with the ED, six consecutive times, with 12 hours intervals, during three days. Knoop microhardness was measured before and after the acid challenge.

Result: All ED brands tested presented low pH levels ranging from 2.1 to 3.2. Regarding titratable acidity, it was found that the amount of base required promoting the neutralization of the solutions ranged from 1200μL to 3750μL. Samples of human enamel in the RB and RBL groups submitted to the acid challenge presented significantly decreased Knoop microhardness when compared with the group C.

Conclusion: All ED examined have potential to promote mineral loss due to the low pH and high titratable acidity. The ED analyzed promoted significant mineral losses on the dental enamel surface.

Keywords

Tooth erosion, energy drinks, dental enamel, tooth demineralization

Resumo

Introdução: O potencial erosivo das bebidas energéticas (BE) devido ao baixo pH e à presença de ácido cítrico pode estar relacionado ao aumento dos índices de erosão dental da população em geral e especialmente, nos jovens.

Objetivo: Verificar o pH e a titulação ácida de BE e a influência de uma marca de BE na microdureza superficial do esmalte.

Material e método: Dez amostras de BE de diferentes marcas comerciais foram selecionadas. O pH de dois lotes de cada BE foi analisado, com e sem gás. A titulação ácida foi realizada com a adição de alíquotas de NaOH, até atingir pH 7,0. Dezoito amostras de esmalte dental humano foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em três grupos (n = 6), Red Bull (RB), Red Light Bull (RBL) e água destilada (C), submetidas a um desafio ácido com a BE, seis vezes consecutivas, com intervalos de 12 horas, durante três dias. A microdureza Knoop foi medida antes e depois do desafio ácido.

Resultado: Todas as marcas de BE testadas apresentaram baixos níveis de pH, variando de 2,1 a 3,2. Em relação à titulação ácida, verificou-se que a quantidade de base necessária para promover a neutralização das soluções variou de 1200 μL a 3750 μL. Amostras de esmalte humano nos grupos RB e RBL submetidos ao desafio ácido apresentaram diminuição significativa da microdureza Knoop.

Conclusão: Todas as BE examinadas apresentaram baixo pH e alta titulação ácida e, portanto, potencial para promover perda mineral. As BE analisadas promoveram perdas minerais significativas na superfície do esmalte dental.
 

Palavras-chave

Erosão dentária, alimentos para praticantes de atividade física, esmalte dentário, desmineralização do dente

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