Revista de Odontologia da UNESP
ISSN 1807-2577 (Eletrônico)
Artigo Original

The prevalence of mandibular retromolar canals on cone beam computed tomography and its clinical repercussions

Prevalência de canais retromolares mandibulares em exames de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico e suas repercussões clínicas

George Borja de FREITAS; Alessandra de FREITAS E SILVA; Luiz Roberto Coutinho MANHÃES JÚNIOR

Abstract

Abstract: Introduction: Knowledge on the normal morphology of the human mandible and its possible anatomical variations are of fundamental importance in dental practice, especially in the areas of surgery and implantodontics. The retromolar region is delimited by the anterior margin of the ramus of the mandible, the temporal crest and the distal surface of the last lower molar. In this area, a retromolar canal may be observed emerging through the retromolar foramen.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of retromolar canals in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and to correlate it with their possible clinical repercussions.

Material and method: 300 CBCT images were selected from the Department of Radiology of the São Leopoldo Mandic Dental School. This was an observational descriptive study and all the images were processed and analyzed on XoranCat®.

Result: Of the 300 CFCT scans analyzed, a single mandibular canal was observed in 210 (70.0%). In the remaining 90 cases, anatomical changes were observed relating to this canal, indicating that the prevalence of this condition in this sample was 30%. The prevalence of retromolar canals was observed in 15 patients (5.0%), of which 06 were in males and 09 in females.

Conclusion: The importance of a full knowledge on the anatomy of the retromolar region is herein reiterated due to the high prevalence of surgical procedures in the posterior region of the mandible, which could optimize predictability at treatment planning as well as anesthetic and surgical outcomes, thus minimizing anesthetic failures and surgical accidents.

Keywords

Surgery, anatomy, mandible

Resumo

Resumo: Introdução: O conhecimento da morfologia normal da mandíbula humana e suas possíveis variações anatômicas, que ocorrem, são de fundamental importância na prática odontológica, especialmente nas áreas da cirurgia e implantodontia. A região retromolar é delimitada pela margem anterior do ramo da mandibular, crista temporal e face distal do último molar inferior. Nessa área pode ser observado o canal retromolar que pode emergir pelo forame retromolar.

Objetivo: O presente estudo objetiva avaliar a ocorrência de canais retromolares em exames de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico e relaciona-la com suas possíveis repercussões clínicas.

Material e método: Foram selecionadas 300 imagens de TCFC provenientes do Departamento de Radiologia da Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic. O presente estudo foi do tipo observacional descritivo e todas as imagens foram processadas e trabalhadas no software XoranCat® do próprio equipamento.

Resultado: Dos 300 exames de TCFC analisados, os canais mandibulares eram únicos em 210 (70,0%). Nos demais 90 casos constatou-se a presença alterações anatômicas no canal mandibular, indicando que a taxa de prevalência dessa condição na amostra foi de 30,0%. A ocorrência dos canais retromolares foi observada em 15 pacientes da amostra total (5,0%), sendo 06 pacientes do gênero masculino e 09 pacientes do gênero feminino.

Conclusão: Ratifica-se a importância de um minucioso conhecimento da região retromolar devido a grande prevalência de cirurgias realizadas na região posterior da mandíbula, a fim de ter previsibilidade nos planejamentos e consequentemente otimizar os procedimentos anestésicos e cirúrgicos realizados, minimizando as falhas anestésicas e os acidentes cirúrgicos.
 

Palavras-chave

Cirurgia, anatomia, mandíbula

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